Lyn Fine; Preface by Jeffrey Dekro, 9/22/2003
Na'aseh Shalom: Let Us Make Peace
(In Response to the Nuclear Threat)
A Curriculum for Jewish School
By Lyn Fine
Preface by Jeffrey Dekro
Editor's Introduction by Les Bronstein
Originally Published by the Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education
and The Shalom Center
Copyright @ 1988 by Lyn Fine
Layout by Cindy Sarah Kohn
From The Shalom Center
6711 Lincoln Drive.
Philadelphia, PA 19119
Published with the help of a grant from The Shefa Fund
For thirteen years, CAJE — in its two guises — and for five years, The Shalom Center, have each brought Jewish tradition and values to bear on the lived-lives of American Jews. Over the past three years, through a collaborative effort, these two organizations encouraged Lyn Fine to winnow a mass of materials and documents to produce a single comprehensive curriculum about the pursuit of Shalom in the nuclear age.
While this curriculum is an extraordinary text that provides some of the most innovative approaches to questions about Shalom and the Bomb, it is not the initial nor should it be the final statement. The Shalom Center, for example, has repeatedly published curricula related to this topic in its organizational periodical The Shalom Report. Also, many creative individual educators, writers, parents, and students frequently send their own educational guides and materials to The Shalom Center and to CAJE.
This compendium, therefore, is not encyclopedic in scope. Instead, it offers a model and means by which teachers and principals can design and conduct specific classroom learning for either one lesson that is discreet or is integrated into another Jewish subject, or for an extended study unit. Na'aseh Shalom/Let Us Make Peace is a teaching aid which can be followed precisely or lightly, depending on the particular educator's inclination or need.
CAJE and The Shalom Center's most important intention is that the material should utilize the powerful teachings Jewish tradition and experience can offer in order to illun-dnate approaches to the nuclear issue. In that sense, this curriculum is a contribution to the quality of American Jewish life and to the life of our wider human society. It is a model of how the passion and caring of the Jewish people can be brought into contact with the fundamental decision of all existence: whether and how to "choose life."
The Shefa Fund has chosen to support this project with its first grant to show how significantly Torah u'Maaseh, study and deed, can be joined for the widest possible benefit of Jews and all people.
On the occasion of the publication of Na'aseh Shalom/Let Us Make Peace, it is appropriate to proclaim:
Barukh ha'Tov veha'Meitiv!
Blessed is the One of Goodness, doing Good!
— Jeffrey Dekro The Shefa Fund
Our world stands with its trigger cocked. This is the great fact which my generation grew up with. Never before have we so needed the human skills of dialogue and compromise. These are skills we learn — or don't learn —as children. As a tiny few of us become international leaders, we draw upon the interactive talents we developed while young. If we have learned to work through argument without resorting to violence, then the world gets yet another day to live.
Lyn Fine understands the direct connection between personal dialogue and global peace. She is a consummate educator who travels from school to school, from community to community, teaching the delicate skills at the heart of all hope. As a deeply spiritual Jew, she has heard the voices of Israel speaking to her about the choosing of life over accursedness. She has searched our tradition for sources that will speak to our students — and to ourselves —about paths to peace at the smallest and grandest levels.
After three painstaking years, Lyn Fine's curriculum is ready for press. It is only a sampling of her excellent work. Perhaps, if time and money cooperate, more of her writing will reach your hands. For now, let this booklet guide you through some of the most important teaching you will ever do. Hillel's words come shouting to us across the centuries: "If not now, when?"
Lester Bronstein, editor
for CAJE and The Shalom Center
Lyn Fine's work owes a substantial debt to Rabbis Burt Jacobson and Jeffrey Schein. More than six years ago, Jacobson wrote a curriculum on this subject that strongly influenced The Shalom Center's early work in this area. Schein's very attentive reviews of the document were invaluable in giving overall shape to the curriculum. Additionally, Jeffrey Dekro especially deserves thanks for his work to make this curriculum possible, culminating in The Shefa Fund's decision to support its publication.
- Arthur Waskow
The Shalom Center
The nuclear age in which we live presents us with unprecedented opportunity and unprecedented challenge. It is a wonderful and exciting time to be alive.
As Jewish educators, we are assisting young people to "choose life" and to nourish shalom on the intra- and inter-personal as well as on the national and global level, informed by Jewish values of covenant, community, learning and action, by our historical experience of oppression, and by our global awareness.
Young people know about the danger of nuclear war. They care about their future. In order to thrive in the nuclear age, they and we need information and ways of thinking appropriate to this age.
This curriculum guide focuses on peacemaking in the nuclear age in a Jewish context and from a Jewish perspective. It is primarily intended for use in a Jewish educational setting, where attention to these issues could be an important counter to the feeling of hopelessness, sometimes disguised as apathy, materialism, or self-destructive action, that many young people are experiencing. The guide offers approaches to this concern which are empowering and which build on the impressive work already accomplished in the Jewish community.
This curriculum is primarily designed for use with junior high and high school students. Most lessons, however, may be adapted for younger children and adults.
There are three major themes, as well as the introductory, "interactive strategies," and resources sections. You are invited to enter at whichever "gateway" is most appropriate for your situation.
I. "POSITIVE PEACE" — A VISION OF SHALOM:
Peace and Shalom; Choosing to be Peacemakers; Creating Conditions for Positive Peace — The Peacemaking Process.
II. INTEGRATING AWARENESS OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR DEVASTATION IN JEWISH LIFE AND ACTION: Liturgy and Study; Shabbat, Holidays, and Life Cycle; Individual and Community Action.
III. THE GROUNDWORK: Basic "nuclear literacy" information; exploring the complexities of Jewish involvement and how this is a matter for Jewish concern; choosing and deciding to act.
We start with the vision of peace and shalom and with peacemaking skills in our daily lives. Beginning here, with the personal and with the vision, we can start to "un-numb." As Robert J. Lifton, a psychologist who has worked with Holocaust and Hiroshima survivors puts it, we all live on two levels. In order to live our daily lives, we numb ourselves to our awareness of the danger from the proliferation of nuclear armaments, their increasing accuracy and speed, and the increasing political and economic tensions within and between countries. Yet in order to act responsibly and effectively, we need to be deeply feeling and clear-thinking.
The second section offers ways to integrate our awareness of the danger of the nuclear age in our Jewish life, while the third provides suggestions for teaching uclear literacy" information, for exploring the complex dimensions of the issue for Jews, and for action planning.
The teaching-learning approaches in this guide are informed by Jewish principles and values such as seeking peace, choosing life, standing for what one believes, Tikkun Olam ("mending the world"), community. Ecological concepts such as "everything is connected to everything else"; "humankind is part of nature"; "the earth is finite" underlie the approach as well.
The lesson guides have been developed with the belief that learning begins with personal experience and continues through a cycle of reflecting with others on experience, integrating new information and perspectives, choosing to act, and again reflecting. Learning occurs effectively, too, through interaction among learners, through channels such as drawing, singing, guided imagination, role-play, and opportunity to think through diverse points of view, and so these are also included.
Each lesson includes texts for study.
To be able to create peaceful and just relationships on all levels in the nuclear age, we need vision, creativity and imagination, humor, clear thinking, persistence, courage, faith. We need to acknowledge both our interdependence and our individual accountability. We need to learn skills of how to affirm our values and yet resolve conflicts without violence. There are no simple solutions... only living with the questions, making informed intelligent choices on the basis of our best thinking at the moment, and taking responsible action. The models and teachings of our tradition and the lessons we take from our history can give us guidance.
In our roles as Jewish educators, each of us can model for young people a Jewish adult who cares, who takes responsibility both in personal life and in public action to ensure our community and species well-being, and who takes joy in being alive.
This guide is, of course, only a beginning. Please send in the approaches and activities you are already using and your and your students' responses to the activities suggested here, and we can continue to build a Jewish Peace Education Network which fosters shalom on all levels.
ADDRESSING NUCLEAR ISSUES IN
People often hold strongly felt opinions on nuclear issues. Feelings of fear, anger, despair may surface as students talk about the reality of the danger of nuclear holocaust and try to decide what they want to do about it. Adopting communication ground rules (speak with I-messages; no interrupting; no one speaks twice before everyone has had the opportunity to speak once; confidentiality) can be useful. It is helpful to have a support group or partner with whom to reflect and choose appropriate activities.
The following guidelines have been useful:
1) Do not bring up nuclear issues with children younger than 12; rather create an environment where they can raise their concerns. Be prepared to respond appropriately: during one class discussion of where to give tzedakah money the class had earned at a bake sale, a third grader said, "We should give it to an organization working for peace — because if there is nuclear war the other organizations won't make any difference anyway." Paying attention to the particular student's and group's intellectual /emotional developmental level, how would you as a teacher respond?
2) Pay attention to your own feelings about the issues. Work with a teachers' support group to plan and reflect. Talk with parents about what you are doing.
3) With people of all ages, the first and most important guideline is to LISTEN. (This is easier to do if you have previously been listened to.) An UNDERSTANDING RESPONSE is useful: rather than a
reaction, comment, or different point of view, this response paraphrases or reflects back in different words the speaker's feeling or statement so that the speaker feels understood and 'heard.'
4) Many students experience isolation and a pervasive feeling of powerlessness and futurelessness. This masquerades as apathy. Create a classroom climate of "power-with" rather than "power-over," in which students express their feelings and know that they are not alone. Together they can then investigate and take action on controversial, deeply felt, and important issues.
Points of view we have found useful are:
1) Nobody wants nuclear conflict. Everyone is working to prevent it, but people disagree on the best way to do this.
2) People all over the world are working to prevent nuclear catastrophe. This is exciting work and will be successful. (Give the reassurance of specific examples, from your personal experience, if possible.)
3) Laughter and tears, fear and anger are natural feelings. It is important to share feelin but to u s e thinking to decide on action (e.g., not to "not-vote" out of a hopeless feeling that, "It won't do any good anyway.")
4) Every person, simply by being alive, is a person whose words and actions have an effect (influence). What is important is to notice what effect, and to practice exerting an influence based on an informed point of view and in a way that benefits everybody.
Suggestions for facing feelings can be found in Joanna Macy's De~pair and Personal Power in the Nuclear Ag .
FIVE WAYS TO USE THE CONCEPTS, LESSONS, AND ACTIVITIES
The information and activities in this curriculum guide can be integrated into classroom work in several ways:
1) SPECIAL TIME: Set aside regular time every week or in every class for focusing on issues of peace and conflict, or devote a unit to one of the themes.
2) INFUSION Become familiar with the concepts, approach and activities in the lessons and, as appropriate, integrate them with the regular study of holidays, prophets, Torah study, history.
3) TEACHABLE MOMENTS: Become familiar with the information, concepts and activities so that, if students bring up a question having to do with nuclear age issues and concerns, or when there is a conflict in
the classroom, these can be addressed in the context of "peacemaking in the nuclear age" awareness.
4) MODELING: CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE AND MANAGEMENT: Build affirmation, communication, cooperation skills and activities into the regular learning process, so that you model these and the classroom climate expresses "peacemaking."
5) INFORMAL ACTIVITIES: Design retreats, Shabbatonim, youth group programs, synagogue conferences, camp activities around one or more of the themes.
A. INTERACTION STRATEGIES: BRINGING THE ISSUE TO LIFE
1. Draw a Web Chart
The purpose of this strategy is to find out what the students know and to open up thinking on a particular topic. Because associations are in "web" rather than linear list form, there is longer retention of what is said and more flexibility for clustering like ideas. Not all of the follow-up activities need to be used each time.
Write the KEY WORD on the board in capital letters. Draw a circle around it. After eliciting a simple definition and a few examples from the students, or giving them one, ask the students to give any associations or images which come to mind with the word. There is no commenting by teacher or student on what is offered. When a word/phrase is mentioned, draw a line from the Key Word circle, and write the association. If associations seem to cluster, write them near each other with a connecting line. If the speaker is not sure, write what s/he says with a question mark. Continue for 2 - 4 minutes, depending on the subject and the enthusiasm of the class.
Go over the associations. Check to see that everyone understands all the vocabulary or associations, and that anything unclear is explained.
Cluster or give the general concept for clusters, Make some generalizations about the amount of information generated by people thinking together.
Generate questions from the words. Then, specify what the different kinds of questions are, for example, factual, opinion, prediction.
Plan research groups or ask the students to share experience in pairs.
2. Concentric Circle
This is a structuring device to allow students to have short (3 minutes) conversations or equal-time turns about a focusing question with different partners. It opens up thinking before a general discussion and allows some movement. Movable chairs, or enough room to stand in a circle, are required.
Ask the students to sit in a circle. Count off 1-2. Ask the 2's to pick up their chairs and place them face-to-face with the person on their left. There is now an inner circle and outer circle, with each student facing a partner. Tell the students the focusing question or phrase to complete. Tell them how long each person has to talk, and call "switch" when the turn is over. After the second person's time is over, ask the students to stop talking, shake hands and say goodbye to their partners. Ask the inner circle to stand up, turn to the right, walk three places and sit down. Give them the focus for the talk with the new partner, follow the same procedure. Usually three conversations work out well.
When the students come back to the original circle, ask them first for reactions to the process. What did they like about it? What could have been better? Then ask for two or three responses to each of the questions.
It's best to try this structure three different times before giving up on it. It's sometimes chaotic the first time around but is easily learned with practice.
The purpose of working in pairs or groups is to open up thinking, to increase interaction among students, and to allow more students to talk. Students learn more when they can explain or talk themselves; they learn from their peers, feelings of isolation are diminished, and skills of cooperation increase.
For special interest groups or sometimes for experience or writing-sharing, students could choose their own pair or group. It is important to do random grouping (counting off; choosing names from a box) fairly often, so students meet other students with whom they may not choose to work. For particular projects, you may want to ask particular students to work together so they can help each other. It's best to begin with two or three students in a group until students are accustomed to it. Then four or five is possible.
Different kinds of groups are helpful:
Cooperative Learning Group .
The three students are responsible for all the material, but each one has only one-third of the material. After students read their own sections silently for a few minutes, ask each student to find someone in another group who has the same material. Give them two or three focusing questions or ask them simply to discuss the material so they can present it to their group. After five or ten minutes, ask the students to return to their individual group. Each student has the responsibility of "teaching" the other students the material. In the whole group, discuss questions or summarize the material.
One or two minutes with a person sitting nearby to think about a question.
This is a group of 3-4 students that stays the same from class to class and meets for a few minutes at the beginning or end of the class as a "check-in" and support group.
4. Sequence with a story
The purpose of this sequence in working with a story is to stimulate the students to investigate conflict and practice skills of peace-making.
Tell or read the story, or ask the students to read it silently or out loud in groups of three as appropriate.
Ask the students what happened, how they think each character felt and what each person might have done differently. Did someone "win" and someone "lose"? Who? Ask them how they know.
If there is a loser, a villain, or a minor character, ask the students to use their imaginations to tell the story from the point of view of that character. (Remind them that history is usually told or written from the point of view of the "winner.")
Ask the students if they have ever had feelings similar to the feelings of the people in the story. For example, wanting to laugh at someone not as fortunate; envious; ashamed and angry at being laughed at; being called on to be a mediator. Ask them if they have ever seen a situation in which people had these feelings.
Divide the class into groups of three. Ask the students to role-play the situation as it occurred. After five minutes, ask them to role-play it again, using the problem- solving steps and trying to find a win-win solution. The groups can show their skits to the class.
Discuss the variety of solutions.
B. FOR TEACHERS AND OLDER
STUDENTS: JEWS AND NUCLEAR
1. Personal History
Make a timeline of your personal and your "nuclear" life story. Draw a line. The endpoints are your birthdate and the current date. Specify dates on the line to indicate when and how (conversation/ personal experience /book /film/newspaper/ TV) you became aware of war, Hiroshima, nuclear bombs, the arms race. Above the line, plot personal events and transitions most important to you. Share your timeline with another teacher.
With another teacher, take ten minutes each to scan personal memories having to do with Jews and war, Jews and the Soviet Union, Jews and nuclear weapons, etc. Discuss with another pair or with each other any new insights.
Write the answers to the questions yourself. Then interview several adults and young people.
a) Name/age/sex of respondent.
b) List some ideas/images that you associate with "nuclear."
c) How old were you when you were first aware of nuclear issues? What do you remember thinking or feeling? How is that different/the same from what you think now?
d) What do you think about civil defense? Do you think that you could survive a nuclear attack on our city? our country? What do you think is the probability that a nuclear war will occur in our lifetime? Do you think the threat is becoming greater or diminishing?
e) How has the threat of nuclear war affected your thinking about the future?
f) What do you wish you knew more about? (e.g., physics o f nuclear weapons... Soviet-American relations... Israel's nuclear policy... Economic effects of the arms race... The nuclear arms race, arms control, and Soviet Jews... How Jews are responding to the nuclear threat... Nuclear proliferation... Terrorism in the nuclear age... Star Wars...
3. What do you believe?
Mark "A" on the statements you agree with and "D" on the statements you disagree with. If you both agree and disagree with a statement, mark "A" and "D." Review your responses. Why did you mark them as you did? Where do you get your information? Share responses.
a. The Soviet Union has superior conventional forces. The only way to deter it from invading Europe is by being ready to use nuclear forces.
b. The United States and the Soviet Union are enemies.
c. Military power is the means of last resort to achieve political ends.
d. The only way to prevent war is to be prepared to win it.
e. U.S. security comes through military superiority.
f.US nuclear weapons policy shapes Soviet
g. Nuclear weapons have made all war obsolete. h. The planet Earth is one interrelated system upon which we are all dependent.
i. In order to survive, we must learn to work together to build a world beyond war and violence.
j. There can be no peace without active justice.
4. Jewish points of view:
Read the three viewpoints below:
For each quote:
1) re-state the point of view;
2) decide which points you agree with;
3) write five questions stimulated by the quote.
Imagine a person whose point of view differs from yours:
1) write an argument; then write a discussion, using understanding responses.
2) write a letter to that person, stating first your common ground, then your differences; include your personal experience, information, values, and reasoning process when you state why you disagree.
a. "There are certain basic moral principles for which a nation must risk its existence — as must
an individual... To allow the world to become Communist, i.e., surrendering to idolatrou
worship — which Jews must never do, even at the cost of their lives — ... this is an obligatory war.
An obligatory war is aimed at preserving three moral conditions: the holy land of Israel, the Jewish people, and Judaism itself. Communism is inherently irreconcilable with Judaism, therefore a war against the Soviet Union would be considered an obligatory war. Therefore we must maintain nuclear forces sufficient to deter and fight the Soviets — even if it means our destruction... War, as such is not immoral ... only an unjust war is immoral... Jewish tradition urged peace, but was not pacifist... (Lamm, Preventing the Nuclear Holocaust p. 14)
b. "If we look at Deut. 20, we realize that the authors posed precisely the right questions in their discussion of the rules of war. These questions are: 1) Who should war include? On our side — who fights? On their side — who may be attacked?... 2) What kind of war is it?" Because of fallout, nuclear weapons cannot be used against military targets without killing civilians... We do not know the consequence of a full-scale nuclear war. Such a war n-dght disrupt the conditions which make human life possible on earth ... The Jew has learned that we live in a new time ... Auschwitz warned us of the human willingness to destroy. Hiroshima warned us of the human capacity to destroy... We must learn to be peacemakers... From a Jewish ethical point of view, nuclear warfare is not justified warfare; it is mass murder. A nuclear war is not a just war; it is the ultimate violation of the sixth commandment." (Hirsch, Menorah)
NOTES, REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
2. Kathleen Kanet of the Intercommunity Center for justice and Peace (20 Washington Square North, New York, NY
10003) suggested the basic idea for this "Learning Circle."
2. Despair and Personal Power in the Nuclear Age by Joanna Rogers Macy. (New Society Publishers, 4722 Baltimore Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19143. 1983.)
4. Two good resources for cooperative learning groups and activities are: Circles of Learning by David W.
And Roger T.Johnson. (Assoc. for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC 1984.) and Cooperative Learning, Cooperative Lives by Nancy Schniedewind and Ellen Davidson. (W.C. Brown Co. Distributed by Circle Books, 30 Walnut St., Somerville, MA 02143. 1986.)
5. Preventing the Nuclear Holocaust, A Tewish Respons . Edited by David Saperstein. (UAHC Religious Action Center, 2027 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. 1983.)
6. For concepts of peace, see: Per~pectives, A Teaching Guide to Concepts of Peace. Educators for Social Responsibilty. (ESR, 23 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. 1983.) Also see the publications of the World Policy Institute 777 UN Plaza, New York, NY for the five World Order Models Project values comprising peace.
7. See Perspectives, p. 39.
8. Abraham Isaac Kook. Translated by Ben Zion Bokser. c 1978 by Ben Zion Bokser. From the Classics of Western
Spirituality series. Used by pern-tission of Paulist Press., NY. Pg. 228-229.
10. Try This: Family Adventures Toward Shalom. Discipleship Resources. PO Box 840, Nashville TN 37202. 1978. Used by permission. This book is full of interesting activities.
12. Visions of the Future, A Textbook on the Past, Present, and Future. (Hudson Institute and International Center for the Development of Thinking Skills, 5 Canal Road, Pelham Manor, NY 10803. 1984.) p. 10.
12. See Creative Conflict Resolution: More than 200 Activities for Keeping Peace in the Classroom by William J.
Kreidler (Scott, Foresman and Co. 1984.) for good classroom activities on "choosing," "first steps," and "consequences." This book is a treasure for anyone interested in effective theory and activities. Highly recommended.
14. The World of Rabbi Nahman of Bratzlav. Selected by Aharon Applefeld. (The World Zionist Organization,
Dept. for Education and Culture in the Diaspora.) Pg. 42-43.
15. See Kreidler, Creative Conflict Resolution.
17. Perspectives. pg. 16-20.
17. The lewish Woman in America by Charlotte Baum, Paula Hyman, and Sonya Michael, p. 140-152.
17. Y.L. Peretz' story "Shalom Bayit" is translated as "An Idyllic Home" in Y.L. Peretz. Translated and edited by Solomon Liptzin. (YIVO Bilingual Series. NBY. 1947. Pg. 146-154.
17. Perspectives, pg. 18-20. Definitions of different kinds of peacemaker are:
PEACEKEEPER: Individuals and organizations who maintain and enforce the laws and rules we live by. For example umpires and referees; parents, teachers and school administrators, police officers.
NEGOTIATOR: A person who creates peace by bringing individuals and or groups together to hear each other so that they may resolve differences and conflicts. For example: family counselors, labor negotiators, diplomats.
SOCIAL ACTIVIST: A person who sees injustice as an obstacle to peace and works towards a vision of a just and peaceful future. Sometimes, by making an injustice apparent, this type of peacemaker provokes controversy and conflict, disturbing the peace in order to achieve a more just peace.
VISIONARY: A person who sees the possibilities for a better world and who communicates this to others in a way that inspires and motivates. For example: writers, musicians, actors, poets, artists, journalists, clergy.
PEACEBUILDER: A person or organization which upholds the values of kindness, humaneness, and social concern. For example: a person who keeps the environment clean by picking up litter; a person who helps a neighbor or friend in need; a person who works with a neighborhood association.
19. Excellent video and booklet, For Kids' Sake, an interview project by young people in Boston, is available from: Boston Area Educators for Social Responsibility. 11 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138.
19.For "problem-solving steps," see Resolving Conflict Creatively. Curriculum Guide for Brooklyn Elementary School District 15 Model Peace Education Program. This is an excellent 200-page draft curriculum guide suggesting activities for teaching conflict resolution under ten themes. Available from: Educators for Social Responsibility/NY Metro, 490 Riverside Drive #27, New York, NY 10027.
20."Hug-A-Planet" is a "peace toy" — a "stuffed planet Earth" that can be hugged like a stuffed animal. Highly recommended. Available from: XTC Products Incorporated, 247 Rockingstone Ave., Larchmont, NY 10538.
20.Shiron L'Shalom. A Sourcebook of Tewish Songs for Peace Educatian. Edited by Ann Carol Abrams and Lucy Joan Sollogub. (Jewish Educators for Social Responsibility, Brookline, MA 1986.) Wonderful songs, including music. Highly recommended.
20.Beyond the Bomb. Living Without Nuclear Weapgns. A Field Guide to Alternative Strategies for Building a Stable Peace. by Mark Sommer. (ExPro Press. Distributed by The Talman Co., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011. 1985.) An excellent, short, graphically dynamic introduction.
21.See Kreidler, Creative Conflict Resolution. for good exercises in communication and communication 'pot-holes'or breakdowns.
22.See Kreidler, Creative Conflict Resolution and ESR/Metro, Resolving Conflict Creativdy.
22.For classroom activities which use the "A-E-I-O-U" approach developed by international negotiations consultant Ellen Raider, write Ellen Raider International Inc., 752 Carroll St., Brooklyn, NY.
22.Getting to Yes, Neggtiating Agreement Without Giving In by Roger Fisher and William Ury. (Penguin, 40 West 23 St., New York, NY 10010. 1981.) This short book is a must-read classic in negotiation and mediation.
28.The five levels of questioning strategy suggested is based on Paolo Friere's problem-posing approach to education as developed by Nina Walierstein in Langua= and Culture in Conflict (Addison-Wesley Pub., Reading, MA. 1983.) It is useful for developing discussion of a text, picture, or film. The five levels of question are: 1) literal; 2) empathetic; 3) personal experience; 4) analysis of conditions/causes; 5) action decisions.
29."Lingering in Sodom" is from Preventing the Nuclear Holocaust, A Tewish Resl2ons . pg. 4142.
30.The Tewish Catalog compiled and edited by Richard Siegel, Michael Strassfeld, and Sharon Strassfeld. (Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia. 1973). Pg. 102-115.
30. Tudaism and Global Survival by Richard Schwartz offers quotations from Jewish sources on a wide range of current social issues. (Vantage Press, NY. 1984)
34.The Challenge of Shalom for Catholics and Tew by Annette Daum and Eugene Fisher (UAHC, 838 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10021. 1985.) offers an interesting discussion of Hanukkah in the article "Developing Attitudes Toward Peace and War in Jewish Tradition" by Annette Daum. Pg. 16.
38.These videos are available from ESR/Metro, 490 Riverside Drive, #27, New York, NY 10027 and from Children of War, 85 South Oxford St., Brooklyn, NY 11217.
39."Nuclear literacy" information presented here comes from Facing the Facts, Flip Charts on the Nuclear Arms Race and the Nuclear Weapons Freeze edited by Sarah Pirtle. (Traprock Peace Center, Keets Rd, Deerfield, MA 01342); Dialogue, A Teaching Guide to Nuclear Issues (Educators for Social Responsibility, 38 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138); and The Home Port Controversy, Sourcebook for an Inqui1y Curriculum (ESR/Metro, 490 Riverside Dr. #27, New York, NY 10027); The Leaven Materials Booklet #7, "War and Peace" by Loretta Carey and Kathleen Kanet. (Religious Education Division, Wm. C. Brown Co. Pub., Dubuque, IA 1984.)
39. Some books for young people on the effects of nuclear bombs are: When the Wind Blows by Raymond Briggs. (Schoken, 1982); Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes by Eleanor Coerr (Putnam, 1977); Return to Hiroshima by Betty Jean Lifton (Atheneum, 1970); Hiroshima No Pika by Toshi Maruki (Lothorop, 1980); Barefoot Gen by Keiji Nakazawa
(Project Gen, 1280 Fourth Ave. #3, San Francisco, CA 94122)
42.Graphics are from The New York Peace Budget, Spring, 1983. (jobs with Peace Task Force, 135 West 4th St, New York, NY 10012)
43. See: Preventing the Nuclear Holocaust, A Jewish Response Roots of Jewish Non-Violence (Jewish Peace Fellowship, Box 271, Nyack, NY 10960); Seeking Peace, Pursuing Peace by Brad Artson; Being Torah by Joel Grishaver.
45. Copies of the Tewish Peace Covenant are available from the Jewish Peace Fellowship, Box 271, Nyack, NY 10960.
46.See: Keeping Posted, October, 1982; Commentary, January, 1985 (Edward Littwak); Preventing the Nuclear Holocaust, A Jewish Response (Pisar and Wiesel). Andy Mager's story is available in comic book form as "The Decision — Andy Mager's Story." (Real War Stories. Eclipse Comics. Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, 2208 South St, Philadelphia, Pa. 19146.) Andy Mager's Story, "The Courage of a Resister", Genesis 2 Accord, NY.
47.The "Michael and Tova" chart is adapted from a chart by Joan Bokaer. (The Citizens Network. Anabel Taylor Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Tapes available.)
47.'Where Do I Stand?" list is from Leaven Materials, Booklet #7 —'War and Peace," p. 10.
48.See Imaging A World Without Weapons by Warren Ziegler (Futures Invention Assoc., Boulder, CO); Visions of the Future and the work of Elise Boulding, among others.
49.These action-possibilities charts are from an excellent booklet, Empowerment of People for Peace. (Women Against Military Madness, 3255 Hennepin Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55408.)
49."Cycles of Helplessness/ Empowerment" is from Alternatives, A Tournal of World Polic . Vol. IX, #4. Spring, 1984. p. 483.
CAJE—and Crisis Curricula:
Shalom Center—The Shalom Report
Jewish Educators for Social Responsibility—Draft
Curriculum for Rosh Hashanah
United Synagogue—Atzeret LeHayyirn
Religious Action Center—Preventing the Nuclear
Holocaust, A Jewish response by David
UAHC—Keeping Posted, Oct. 1982 (and others)
Jewish Peace Fellowship—Jewish Roots of
CLAL—The Ethics of National Power: Government and War from the Sources of Judaism by Reuven Kimelman
NFT"Y Against the Arms Race
Moment July-Aug, 1983 (and others)
Ann Carol Abrams and Lucy Joan Sollogub,
ed.—Shiron L'Shalom, A Sourcebook of Jewish
Songs for Peace Education
Annette Daum and Eugene Fisher—The Challenge of Shalom
Burt Jacobson—Bibliography of Jewish
Perspectives on War and Peace—Menorah
July-Aug. 1983—available through The
Jane Litman—Biographies of Jewish Peacemaker
Penninah Schram—Bibliography of Stories for
Richard H. Schwartz—Judaism and Global
Dov Peretz Elkins—Clarifying Jewish Values;
Jewish Consciousness Raisin (and others)
The Secret Grove by Barbara Cohen (and Teachers'
Guide by Cheri Ellowitz Silver)
My Shalom, My Peace
Leaders of Our People -Teachers Guide
(Sanhedrin, Akiba, Einstein, others)
Educators for Social Responsibility
Physicians for Social Responsibility
Fellowship of Reconciliation—Children's Creative
Response to Conflict program
Interfaith Center to Reverse the Arms Race
Intercommunity Center for justice and Peace—Leaven
Futures Invention Associates—Imaging A World
Women Against Military Madness—Empowerment of
People for Peace
American Friends Service Committee—Films, Video
Riverside Church Disarmament Program
Consortium on Peace Research, Education and
World Policy Institute
Center for Defense Information
Bulletin of Atomic Scientist
The Washington Spectator
Roger Fisher and William Ury—Getting to Ye
Robert Lifton—The Broken Connection; Indefensible
Weapons (and others)
Joanna Macy—Desl2air and Personal Power in a Nuclear
Robert Mueller—The New Genesi
Fran Peavey—Heart Politic
William VanOrnum and Mary Wicker Van
Ornum-Talking to Children About Nuclear War
Mark Sommer—Beyond the Bomb—Living Without
Roger Walsh—Staying Alive
Jack Canfield and Harold C. Wells—100 Ways to
Enhance Self-Concept in the Classroom
David Johnson and Roger Johnson—Circles of Learning
(Cooperative Learning Groups in the Classroom)
Stephanie Judson—A Manual on Nonviolence and
William Kreidler—Creative Conflict Resolution in the
Nancy Schniedewind /Ellen Davidson—012en Mind
Equality: A Sourcebook of Learning Activities to
Promote Race, Sex, Class and Age Equit
Evelyn Weiss, ed—Children's Songs for a Friendly
Toshi Maruki—Hiroshima No Pika
Eleanor Coerr—Sadako and the Thousand Crane
This curriculum guide has been inspired and developed through the energy, time, and commitment of all the people around the world who are working to create conditions of peace in the nuclear age. Fortunately, they are too numerous to name here.
My thanks and appreciation go especially to Eliot Spack, Les Bronstein and Joel Grishaver of the Coalition for the Advancement of Jewish Education; and to Arthur Waskow, Jeffrey Dekro and Betsy Sason of The Shalom Center for initiating the project and seeing it through its various stages to publication.
Much of Section II, "Integrating Nuclear Age Awareness into Jewish Prayer, Midrash, Shabbat/ Holidays/ Life Cycle" is based in work published in New Menorah, a journal of Jewish renewal now published by the P'nai Or Religious Fellowship and edited by Arthur Waskow and Shana Margolin, and The Shalom Reportpublished by The Shalom Center. This section has been greatly influenced by the learning approaches developed at National Havurah Institute and CAJE Conferences, P'nai Or in Philadelphia, and by Jeff Oboler at the Martin Steinberg Center for Jewish Artists. The pathbreaking creativity of Sheila Peltz Weinberg, Peninnah Schram, Ruth Sohn, Lynn Gottlieb, and Sally Fox is explicitly or implicitly present in this guide.
The guide is grounded in the pedagogical approach and curriculum development work of Educators for Social Responsibility, both the New York/Metro chapter and the national office. It is particularly influenced by the work and ideas of Shelley Berman, Tom Roderick, Linda Lantieri, William Kreidler, Priscilla Prutzman, Ellen Raider, Frank Ireland, Alan Shapiro, Kathleen Kanet, and Betty Reardon.
In addition to the above, many people have offered beneficial feedback on various drafts and provided encouragement for the project. These include: Nancy Abramson, Brad Artson, Adrianne Bank, John Bell, Marilyn Bentov, Phyllis Berman, Cherie Brown, Nina Cardin, Emily Feigensohn, Leonore Fine, Audrey Friedman-Marcus, Bob Goldman, David Holtz, Neal Kaunfer, Pamela Lerman, Jeff Marker, Lori Miller, Judith Palarz, Larry Pinsker, Laurie Ruskin, Richard Schwartz, Dorothy Stoneman, Judith Thompson, Simha Weintraub.
— Lyn Fine
We thank the following individuals and organizations for permission to reprint:
8. Paulist Press, A Four-fold SgDZ, from Abraham Isaac Kock, Ben Zion Bokser (trans.)
10. Discipleship Resources,The Cily Boardgame.
13. The Hudson Institute, Visions of the Future Social Science Activists Text from "Levels of Certainty About the Future."
15. Scott Foresman & Co., "How I Respond to Conflicts", Creative Conflict Resolution by Wrn Kreidler.
22. Ellen Raider, "A-E-1-0-U", International Negotiations Workbook.
24. Central Conference of American Rabbis, "Tisha B'Av Responsive Reading," pages 579-580, Gates of Praygr The New Union Prayerbook. (Copyright also by Union of Progressive and Liberal Synagogues) and Sylvia Heschel, for quotations from Abraham J. Heschel's The Insecurity of Freedom.
29. David Saperstein, "Lingering in Sodorn"pages 32-34, Preventing Nuclear Holocaust.
45. Jewish Peace Fellowship, "Peace Covenant", copies available from JPF Box 271 Nyack, NY 10960.
46. Genesis 2, "The Courage of a Resister."
50. World Policy Institute, Chart on cycles of hopelessness/empowerment.